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What You"ll Be Creating

What Is Retrofit?

Retrofit is a type-safe HTTP client for Android và Java. Retrofit makes it easy to connect to lớn a REST website service by translating the API into Java interfaces. In this tutorial, I"ll show you how khổng lồ use one of most popular and often-recommended HTTP libraries available for Android. 

This powerful library makes it easy to lớn consume JSON or XML data which is then parsed into Plain Old Java Objects (POJOs). GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE requests can all be executed. 

Like most open-source software, Retrofit was built on đứng top of some other powerful libraries & tools. Behind the scenes, Retrofit makes use of OkHttp (from the same developer) to lớn handle network requests. Also, Retrofit does not have a built-in any JSON converter khổng lồ parse from JSON khổng lồ Java objects. Instead it ships tư vấn for the following JSON converter libraries to lớn handle that: 

Gson: com.squareup.retrofit:converter-gsonJackson: com.squareup.retrofit:converter-jacksonMoshi: com.squareup.retrofit:converter-moshi

For Protocol Buffers, Retrofit supports:

Protobuf: com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-protobufWire: com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-wire

And for XML, Retrofit supports:

Simple Framework: com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-simpleframework

So Why Use Retrofit?

Developing your own type-safe HTTP library to lớn interface with a REST API can be a real pain: you have to lớn handle many functionalities such as making connections, caching, retrying failed requests, threading, response parsing, error handling, và more. Retrofit, on the other hand, is very well planned, documented, & tested—a battle-tested library that will save you a lot of precious time and headaches.

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In this tutorial, I will explain how to lớn use Retrofit 2 khổng lồ handle network requests by building a simple ứng dụng to query recent answers from the Stack Exchange API. We"ll perform GET requests by specifying an endpoint—/answers, appended to lớn the base URL—then get the results và display them in a recycler view. I will also show you how to vị this with RxJava for easy management of the flow of state và data.

1. Create an apk Studio Project

Fire up apk Studio & create a new project with an empty activity called MainActivity.


2. Declaring Dependencies

After creating a new project, declare the following dependencies in your build.gradleThe dependencies include a recycler view, the Retrofit library, and also Google"s Gson library lớn convert JSON lớn POJO (Plain Old Java Objects) as well as Retrofit"s Gson integration. 

// Retrofitcompile "com.squareup.retrofit2:retrofit:2.1.0"https:// JSON Parsingcompile ""compile "com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-gson:2.1.0"https:// recyclerview compile ""Don"t forget to lớn sync the project to download these libraries. 

3. Adding mạng internet Permission

To perform network operations, we need to lớn include the INTERNET permission in the application manifest: AndroidManifest.xml.

4. Generating Models Automatically

We are going khổng lồ create our models automatically from our JSON response data by leveraging a very useful tool: jsonschema2pojo. 

Get the Sample JSON Data

Copy & paste in your browser"s address bar (or you could use Postman if you are familiar with that tool). Then press Enter—this will execute a GET request on the given endpoint. What you will see in response is an array of JSON objects. The screenshot below is the JSON response using Postman.


"items": < "owner": "reputation": 1, "user_id": 6540831, "user_type": "registered", "profile_image": "", "display_name": "bobolafrite", "link": "" , "is_accepted": false, "score": 0, "last_activity_date": 1480862271, "creation_date": 1480862271, "answer_id": 40959732, "question_id": 35931342 , "owner": "reputation": 629, "user_id": 3054722, "user_type": "registered", "profile_image": "", "display_name": "jeremy-denis", "link": "" , "is_accepted": false, "score": 0, "last_activity_date": 1480862260, "creation_date": 1480862260, "answer_id": 40959731, "question_id": 40959661 , ... >, "has_more": true, "backoff": 10, "quota_max": 300, "quota_remaining": 241Copy this JSON response either from your browser or Postman. 

Map the JSON Data lớn Java

Now visit jsonschema2pojo and paste the JSON response into the đầu vào box.

Select a source type of JSON, annotation style of Gson, và uncheck Allow additional properties


Then click the Preview button khổng lồ generate the Java objects. 


You might be wondering what the
SerializedName annotation is needed for Gson to map the JSON keys with our fields. In keeping with Java"s camelCase naming convention for class member properties, it is not recommended to lớn use underscores to lớn separate words in a variable. 
Exposeprivate Integer quotaRemaining;In the example above, we are telling Gson that our JSON key quota_remaining should be mapped to lớn the Java field quotaRemaining. If both of these values were the same, i.e. If our JSON key was quotaRemaining just like the Java field, then there would be no need for the 
Expose annotation indicates that this member should be exposed for JSON serialization or deserialization. 

Import Data Models to game android Studio

Now let"s go back to app android Studio. Create a new sub-package inside the main package and name it data. Inside the newly created data package, create another package & name it model. Inside the mã sản phẩm package, create a new Java class & name it Owner. Now copy the Owner class that was generated by jsonschema2pojo & paste it inside the Owner class you created. 

import;import;public class Owner
Expose private Integer acceptRate; public Integer getReputation() return reputation; public void setReputation(Integer reputation) this.reputation = reputation; public Integer getUserId() return userId; public void setUserId(Integer userId) this.userId = userId; public String getUserType() return userType; public void setUserType(String userType) this.userType = userType; public String getProfileImage() return profileImage; public void setProfileImage(String profileImage) this.profileImage = profileImage; public String getDisplayName() return displayName; public void setDisplayName(String displayName) this.displayName = displayName; public String getLink() return link; public void setLink(String link) = link; public Integer getAcceptRate() return acceptRate; public void setAcceptRate(Integer acceptRate) this.acceptRate = acceptRate; Do the same thing for a new chiến thắng class, copied from jsonschema2pojo. 

import;import;public class tòa tháp
Expose private Integer lastEditDate; public Owner getOwner() return owner; public void setOwner(Owner owner) this.owner = owner; public Boolean getIsAccepted() return isAccepted; public void setIsAccepted(Boolean isAccepted) this.isAccepted = isAccepted; public Integer getScore() return score; public void setScore(Integer score) this.score = score; public Integer getLastActivityDate() return lastActivityDate; public void setLastActivityDate(Integer lastActivityDate) this.lastActivityDate = lastActivityDate; public Integer getCreationDate() return creationDate; public void setCreationDate(Integer creationDate) this.creationDate = creationDate; public Integer getAnswerId() return answerId; public void setAnswerId(Integer answerId) this.answerId = answerId; public Integer getQuestionId() return questionId; public void setQuestionId(Integer questionId) this.questionId = questionId; public Integer getLastEditDate() return lastEditDate; public void setLastEditDate(Integer lastEditDate) this.lastEditDate = lastEditDate; Finally, create a class named 
SOAnswersResponse for the returned StackOverflow answers. You"ll find the for this class in jsonschema2pojo as Example. Make sure you update the class name khổng lồ SOAnswersResponse wherever it occurs. 

import;import;import java.util.List;public class SOAnswersResponse
Expose private Integer quotaRemaining; public danh sách getItems() return items; public void setItems(List items) this.items = items; public Boolean getHasMore() return hasMore; public void setHasMore(Boolean hasMore) this.hasMore = hasMore; public Integer getBackoff() return backoff; public void setBackoff(Integer backoff) this.backoff = backoff; public Integer getQuotaMax() return quotaMax; public void setQuotaMax(Integer quotaMax) this.quotaMax = quotaMax; public Integer getQuotaRemaining() return quotaRemaining; public void setQuotaRemaining(Integer quotaRemaining) this.quotaRemaining = quotaRemaining;

5. Creating the Retrofit Instance

To issue network requests to lớn a REST API with Retrofit, we need lớn create an instance using the Retrofit.Builder class và configure it with a base URL. 

Create a new sub-package package inside the data package & name it remote. Now inside remote, create a Java class và name it RetrofitClient. This class will create a singleton of Retrofit. Retrofit needs a base URL to build its instance, so we will pass a URL when calling RetrofitClient.getClient(String baseUrl). This URL will then be used to build the instance in line 13. We are also specifying the JSON converter we need (Gson) in line 14. 

import retrofit2.Retrofit;import retrofit2.converter.gson.GsonConverterFactory;public class RetrofitClient private static Retrofit retrofit = null; public static Retrofit getClient(String baseUrl) if (retrofit==null) retrofit = new Retrofit.Builder() .baseUrl(baseUrl) .addConverterFactory(GsonConverterFactory.create()) .build(); return retrofit;

6. Creating the API Interface

Inside the remote package, create an interface và call it SOService. This interface contains methods we are going to use khổng lồ execute HTTP requests such as GET, POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE. For this tutorial, we are going lớn execute a GET request. 

import;import java.util.List;import retrofit2.Call;import retrofit2.http.GET;public interface SOService {
GET annotation explicitly defines that GET request which will be executed once the method gets called. Every method in this interface must have an HTTP annotation that provides the request method & relative URL. There are five built-in annotations available: 

In the second method definition, we added a query parameter for us to filter the data from the server. Retrofit has the 
Query("key") annotation lớn use instead of hard-coding it in the endpoint. The key value represents the parameter name in the URL. It will be added to the URL by Retrofit. For example, if we pass the value "android" as an argument lớn the getAnswers(String tags) method, the full URL will be: of the interface methods can have the following annotations:

specifies the header with the value of the annotated parameter

7. Creating the API Utils

Now are going khổng lồ create a utility class. We"ll name it ApiUtils. This class will have the base URL as a static variable and also provide the SOService interface khổng lồ our application through the getSOService() static method.

public class ApiUtils public static final String BASE_URL = ""; public static SOService getSOService() return RetrofitClient.getClient(BASE_URL).create(SOService.class);

8. Display khổng lồ a RecyclerView

Since the results will be displayed in a recycler view, we need an adapter. The following snippet shows the AnswersAdapter class.

public class AnswersAdapter extends RecyclerView.Adapter private menu mItems; private Context mContext; private PostItemListener mItemListener; public class ViewHolder extends RecyclerView.ViewHolder implements View.OnClickListener public TextView titleTv; PostItemListener mItemListener; public ViewHolder(View itemView, PostItemListener postItemListener) super(itemView); titleTv = (TextView) itemView.findViewById(; this.mItemListener = postItemListener; itemView.setOnClickListener(this);
Override public void onClick(View view) item item = getItem(getAdapterPosition()); this.mItemListener.onPostClick(item.getAnswerId()); notifyDataSetChanged(); public AnswersAdapter(Context context, danh sách posts, PostItemListener itemListener) mItems = posts; mContext = context; mItemListener = itemListener;
Override public AnswersAdapter.ViewHolder onCreateViewHolder(ViewGroup parent, int viewType) Context context = parent.getContext(); LayoutInflater inflater = LayoutInflater.from(context); View postView = inflater.inflate(android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1, parent, false); ViewHolder viewHolder = new ViewHolder(postView, this.mItemListener); return viewHolder;
Override public void onBindViewHolder(AnswersAdapter.ViewHolder holder, int position) nhà cửa item = mItems.get(position); TextView textView = holder.titleTv; textView.setText(item.getOwner().getDisplayName());
Override public int getItemCount() return mItems.size(); public void updateAnswers(List items) mItems = items; notifyDataSetChanged(); private công trình getItem(int adapterPosition) return mItems.get(adapterPosition); public interface PostItemListener void onPostClick(long id);

9. Executing the Request

Inside the onCreate() method of the MainActivity, we initialize an instance of the SOService interface (line 9), the recycler view, và also the adapter. Finally, we gọi the loadAnswers() method. 

private AnswersAdapter mAdapter; private RecyclerView mRecyclerView; private SOService mService;
Override protected void onCreate (Bundle savedInstanceState) super.onCreate( savedInstanceState ); setContentView(R.layout.activity_main ); mService = ApiUtils.getSOService(); mRecyclerView = (RecyclerView) findViewById(; mAdapter = new AnswersAdapter(this, new ArrayList(0), new AnswersAdapter.PostItemListener()
Override public void onPostClick(long id) Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, "Post id is" + id, Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show(); ); RecyclerView.LayoutManager layoutManager = new LinearLayoutManager(this); mRecyclerView.setLayoutManager(layoutManager); mRecyclerView.setAdapter(mAdapter); mRecyclerView.setHasFixedSize(true); RecyclerView.ItemDecoration itemDecoration = new DividerItemDecoration(this, DividerItemDecoration.VERTICAL_LIST); mRecyclerView.addItemDecoration(itemDecoration); loadAnswers(); The loadAnswers() method makes a network request by calling enqueue(). When the response comes back, Retrofit helps us to parse the JSON response lớn a các mục of Java objects. (This is made possible by using GsonConverter.)

public void loadAnswers() mService.getAnswers().enqueue(new Callback()
Override public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) if(response.isSuccessful()) mAdapter.updateAnswers(response.body().getItems()); Log.d("MainActivity", "posts loaded from API"); else int =; // handle request errors depending on status
Override public void onFailure(Call call, Throwable t) showErrorMessage(); Log.d("MainActivity", "error loading from API"); );

10. Understanding enqueue()

enqueue() asynchronously sends the request and notifies your ứng dụng with a callback when a response comes back. Since this request is asynchronous, Retrofit handles it on a background thread so that the main UI thread isn"t blocked or interfered with.

To use enqueue(), you have to lớn implement two callback methods:


Only one of these methods will be called in response lớn a given request. 

onResponse(): invoked for a received HTTP response. This method is called for a response that can be correctly handled even if the vps returns an error message. So if you get a status of 404 or 500, this method will still be called. To lớn get the status in order for you khổng lồ handle situations based on them, you can use the method You can also use the isSuccessful() method to find out if the status is in the range 200-300, indicating success.onFailure(): invoked when a network exception occurred communicating to the vps or when an unexpected exception occurred handling the request or processing the response. 

To perform a synchronous request, you can use the execute() method. Be aware that synchronous methods on the main/UI thread will block any user action. So don"t execute synchronous methods on Android"s main/UI thread! Instead, run them on a background thread.

11. Testing the App

You can now run the app. 


12. RxJava Integration

If you are a fan of RxJava, you can easily implement Retrofit with RxJava. In Retrofit 1 it was integrated by default, but in Retrofit 2 you need khổng lồ include some extra dependencies. Retrofit ships with a mặc định adapter for executing Call instances. So you can change Retrofit"s execution mechanism to lớn include RxJava by including the RxJava CallAdapter. 

Step 1

Add the dependencies.

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compile "io.reactivex:rxjava:1.1.6"compile "io.reactivex:rxandroid:1.2.1"compile "com.squareup.retrofit2:adapter-rxjava:2.1.0"

Step 2

Add the new CallAdapter RxJavaCallAdapterFactory.create() when building a Retrofit instance.

public static Retrofit getClient(String baseUrl) if (retrofit==null) retrofit = new Retrofit.Builder() .baseUrl(baseUrl) .addCallAdapterFactory(RxJavaCallAdapterFactory.create()) .addConverterFactory(GsonConverterFactory.create()) .build(); return retrofit;

Step 3

Now, update the getAnswers() methods khổng lồ return Observables:

Query("tagged") String tags);

Step 4

When making the requests, our anonymous subscriber responds to lớn the observable"s stream which emits events, in our case SOAnswersResponse. The onNext method is then called when our subscriber receives any sự kiện emitted which is then passed to lớn our adapter. 

Overridepublic void loadAnswers() mService.getAnswers().subscribeOn( .subscribe(new Subscriber()
Override public void onNext(SOAnswersResponse soAnswersResponse) mAdapter.updateAnswers(soAnswersResponse.getItems()); );Check out Getting Started With ReactiveX on Android by Ashraff Hathibelagal to lớn learn more about RxJava & RxAndroid. 


In this tutorial, you learned about Retrofit: why you should use it và how. I also explained how to địa chỉ cửa hàng RxJava integration with Retrofit. In my next post, I"ll show you how to lớn perform POST, PUT, and DELETE, how khổng lồ send Form-Urlenjohnadamshs.netd data, & how khổng lồ cancel requests. 

To learn more about Retrofit, vị refer lớn the official documentation. And in the meantime, kiểm tra out some of our other courses & tutorials on app android app development.